Smart building management system

What is a Building Management System (BMS)?

BMS (BSM), which stands for Building Management System, refers to homes whose electrical equipment is controlled by a central smart system. In fact, the set of hardware and software that is installed in the building for monitoring and integrated control of important and vital parts of the building is called BMW.
The function of this complex is to continuously monitor different parts of the building and apply orders to them so that the performance of different components of the building is balanced with each other and in optimal conditions and with the aim of reducing unwanted consumption and allocating energy resources only to spaces during operation.
BMS can include all electrical, mechanical, and security services of a building. These services include heating, cooling, air conditioning, elevator, emergency power plant, escalator, lighting control, CCTV camera, fire alarm and extinguishing, traffic control and so on.

Advantages of using BMS

The main purpose of using BMS in buildings is to take advantage of economic benefits and reduce energy consumption and create a safe and calm environment in them. The general advantages and benefits of using BMS are:

1- Creating a favorable environment for the people present in the building.
2- Optimal use of equipment and increasing their useful life.
3- Providing a control system with the ability to plan performance time.
4. Significant reduction in maintenance and repair costs.
5- Optimizing and saving energy consumption.
6- No need for a permanent contractor for the building.
7- Possibility of monitoring and control of all points under control through a PC, mobile or internet
8- Due to the integration of the management of various facilities and systems in the building, all the equipment works in a coordinated manner and the possibility of interference and occurrence of problems due to non-coordination is eliminated.
9- Possibility of statistical reports of all equipments and their performance in order to optimize consumption and performance.

Appropriate strategies of BMS system in reducing energy consumption:

The most popular methods used by BMS designers are:

1- Turning the equipment on and off based on the operating schedule tables,
2- Lock out or use the equipment if necessary.
3- Exploitation of the minimum allowed capacity in the operation of equipment (Resets).
4. Demand Limiting, which will cut off power to equipment if the load is exceeded.
5- Monitoring the condition of the equipment by the trained operators and using the data in solving the equipment problems and examining their effective operation.

BMS system architecture

The system is usually categorized into three levels. At the zero level are the devices and equipment, the sensors and the final control components. M&E systems (system engineering and operating stations) are located in this section and are transmitted to integrated controllers through inputs and outputs. This transfer may be made directly or through designed panels.
The components are available after the system is turned off and include I / O systems, controllers and communication software with Level 2, and all control and logic algorithms are performed at this level.

Level 2 or Level Monitoring Control is a level where monitoring and information management tools include HMIs, servers, storage equipment, and the workstations of operators and engineers who need to be connected to the BMS system. The connection between levels one and two is made through industry standard protocols.
BMS control software has many capabilities. These applications are located at level 3 and are installed on suitable servers and usually have the following minimum conditions:

1- It has a suitable and simple graphical environment for a normal user.
2- It has a library of all kinds of solutions and programs for easy designing and developing the system in the future.
3- It has PM facilities (service and maintenance) to guide the system in the future without the need to provide separate PM software.
4- Possibility of defining longitude and latitude for automatic adjustment of sunrise and sunset conditions and energy consumption control.
5- Possibility of defining the security layers available to the program by different users.
6- Possibility of defining security layers for users under different systems such as Access, HVAC, Lighting and….
7. Ability to store software information in SQL databases that can be controlled by Microsoft Windows.
8- Possibility of preparing, adjusting and comparing different operational charts, including power consumption diagram and 2 in different time periods (Trends).
9- Simple connection of graphics software and I / O systems.
10. Ability to store information about errors and other reports for a long time.
11- The possibility of tracking and tracking the tree and the topology of the BACnet network by the software online so that if a member of the network is certain, the system will automatically alarm.

BMS tasks in the building

Currently, BMS integrated systems in buildings, skyscrapers and commercial-office and residential towers or industrial complexes control different parts:

1- Lighting systems.
2- Cold and heating fans and facilities.
3- Traffic control systems.
4- Video surveillance systems.
5- Measuring equipment and meters.
6- Fire alarm systems.
7- Security and peripheral protection systems.
8- Elevators.

BMS is commonly used in most buildings to control heating and cooling facilities, lighting and traffic control. However, due to the use of standard protocols and architecture based on known standards, these systems make it possible to link to all the systems listed above and form a complex control model for all controllable components in the building. Implementing such a comprehensive system in a building will really make it a safe and smart structure. Research shows that using BMS at best reduces energy consumption by 30 percent in buildings. However, the use of integrated systems is 15% higher than that of individual systems.